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Obras de drenaje en carreteras

3.- OBRAS COMPLEMENTARIAS DE DRENAJE.

Las obras de drenaje son elementos estructurales que eliminan la inaccesibilidad de un camino, provocada por el agua o la humedad.

Los objetivos primordiales de las obras de drenaje son:

Dar salida al agua que se llegue a acumular en el camino.

Reducir o eliminar la cantidad de agua que se dirija hacia el camino.

Evitar que el agua provoque daños estructurales.

De la construcción de las obras de drenaje, dependerá en gran parte la vida útil, facilidad de acceso y la vida útil del camino.

Tipos de drenaje:

Para lleva a cabo lo anteriormente citado, se utiliza el drenaje superficial y el drenaje subterráneo.

Drenaje superficial.- Se construye sobre la superficie del camino o terreno, con funciones de captación, salida, defensa y cruce, algunas obras cumplen con varias funciones al mismo tiempo.

En el drenaje superficial encontramos: cunetas, contra cunetas, bombeo, lavaderos, zampeados, y el drenaje transversal.

Cunetas.- Las cunetas son zanjas que se hacen en uno o ambos lados del camino, con el propósito de conducir las aguas provenientes de la corona y lugares adyacentes hacia un lugar determinado, donde no provoque daños, su diseño se basa en los principios de los canales abiertos.

Para un flujo uniforme se utiliza la formula de Manning, como se muestra a continuación.


Donde:
V = velocidad media en metros por segundo
n = coeficiente de rugosidad de Manning
R = radio hidráulico en metros (área de la sección entre el perímetro mojado)
S = pendiente del canal en metros por metro.



Determinación del área hidráulica:




Donde:
Q = gasto en m3/seg.
A = Área de la sección transversal del flujo en m2

Debido a la incertidumbre para la determinación del área hidráulica en la practica, las secciones de las cunetas, se proyectan por comparación con otras en circunstancias comunes.

Existen diversas formas para construir las cunetas, en la actualidad las más comunes sen las triangulares, como se muestra a continuación:



Se evitara dar una gran longitud a las cunetas, mediante el uso de obras de alivio.

En algunos casos será necesario proteger las cunetas mediante zampeados, debido a la velocidad provocada por la pendiente.

Las contra cunetas son zanjas que se construyen paralelamente al camino, de forma trapecial comúnmente, con plantilla de 50 cms y taludes adecuados a la naturaleza del terreno.

Contra cunetas.- La función de las contra cunetas es prevenir que llegue al camino un exceso de agua o humedad, aunque la practica ha demostrado que en muchos casos no es conveniente usarlas, debido a que como se construyen en la parte aguas arriba de los taludes, provocan reblandecimientos y derrumbes.

Si son necesarias, deberá, estudiarse muy bien la naturaleza geológica del lugar donde se van ha construir, alejándolas lo mas posible de los taludes y zampéandolas en algunos casos para evitar filtraciones.

Bombeo.- Es la inclinación que se da ha ambos lados del camino, para drenar la superficie del mismo, evitando que el agua se encharque provocando reblandecimientos o que corra por el centro del camino causando daños debido a la erosión.

El bombeo depende del camino y tipo de superficie, se mide su inclinación en porcentaje y es usual un 2 a 4 por ciento en caminos revestidos.

Zampeado.- Es una protección a la superficie de rodamiento o cunetas, contra la erosión donde se presentan fuertes pendientes. Se realza con piedra, concreto ciclópeo o concreto simple.

Lavaderos.- Son pequeños encauzamientos a traves de cubiertas de concreto, lamina, piedra con mortero o piedra acomodada que se colocan en las salidas de las alcantarillas o terrenos erosionables, eliminando los daños que originaria la velocidad del agua.

Drenaje transversal.- Su finalidad es permitir el paso transversal del agua sobre un camino, sin obstaculizar el paso.

En este tipo de drenajes, algunas veces será necesario construir grandes obras u obras pequeñas denominadas obras de drenaje mayor y obras de drenaje menor, respectivamente.

Las obras de drenaje mayor requieren de conocimientos y estudios especiales, entre ellas podemos mencionar los puentes, puentes –vado y bóvedas.

Aunque los estudios estructurales de estas obras son diferentes para cada una, la primera etapa de selección e integración de datos preliminares es común.

Así con la comparación de varios lugares del mismo rió o arroyo elegiremos el lugar mas indicado basándonos en el ancho y altura del cruce, de preferencia que no se encuentre en lugares donde la corriente tiene deflexiones y aprovechando las mejores características geológicas y de altura donde vamos descendiendo o ascendiendo con el trazo.

Las bóvedas de medio punto construidas con mampostería son adecuadas cuando requerimos salvar un claro con una altura grande de la rasante al piso del rió.

Los vados son estructuras muy pegadas al terreno natural, generalmente losas a piso, tienen ventajas en cauces amplios con tirantes pequeños y régimen torrencial por corto tiempo. La construcción de vados es económica y accesibles a los cambios rurales por el aprovechamiento de los recursos del lugar, ya que pueden ser construidos de mampostería, concreto simple, ciclópeo y hasta de lamina. Su diseño debe evitar provocar erosión aguas arriba y aguas abajo, además de evitar que se provoque régimen turbulento que también son causa de socavación.

El puente – vado, es una estructura en forma de puente y con características de vado, que permite el paso del agua a través de claros inferiores en niveles ordinarios, y por la parte superior cuando se presentan avenidas con aguas máximas extraordinarias.

La altura de la obra debe permitir que cuando se presenten avenidas en aguas máximas extraordinarias los árboles u objetos arrastrados no dañen la estructura.

Los puentes son estructuras de mas de seis metros de claro, se distingue de las alcantarillas por el colchón que estas levan en la parte superior.

La estructura de un puente esta formada por la infraestructura, la subestructura y la superestructura.

La infraestructura se manifiesta en zapatas de concreto o mampostería, cilindros de cimentación y pilotes. La subestructura forma parte de un puente a través de pilas centrales, estribos, columnas metálicas sobre pedestales de concreto, caballetes de madera, etc. la superestructura integra la parte superior de un puente por medio de través de concreto o metálicas, vigas y pisos de madera, losas de concreto, nervaduras armadas de fierro, madera, cable, etc.

Obras de drenaje menor:

Las alcantarillas son estructuras transversales al camino que permiten el cruce del agua y están protegidas por una capa de material en la parte superior, pueden ser de forma rectangular, cuadrada, de arco o tubular, se construyen de concreto, lamina, piedra o madera.

Para canalizar el agua se complementan con muros o aleros en la entrada y salida, podemos decir que actualmente en los caminos rurales, las mas usuales son las alcantarillas laminares.

Drenaje subterráneo.- el drenaje subterráneo es un gran auxiliar para eliminar humedad que inevitablemente ha llegado al camino y así evitar que provoque asentamientos o deslizamientos de material.

Son usuales los drenes ciegos que consisten en zanjas bajo las cunetas rellenas con material graduado con una base firme que evite filtraciones mas allá de donde se desea, dirigiendo el agua hacia un lugar donde se le pueda retirar de manera superficial del camino, las dimensiones varían según las características hidrológicas del lugar donde se van ha construir, son funcionales en varios tipos de camino. La plantilla de estos es de 45 cm. Y de 80 a 100 cm. De profundidad, el material se graduara cuidadosamente en capas con tamaños uniformes.



También se usan con el mismo fin drenes con tubos perforados que recogen el agua de la parte inferior del camino bajo las cunetas, su construcción consiste en la apertura de una zanja para colocar un tubo de barro o concreto que canalice el agua.

El cuidado con que se coloquen los tubos, la determinación de su diámetro y resistencia, influirá en la funcionalidad y duración del dren.

El diámetro no será menor a quince centímetros con numerosas perforaciones, rellenando con material adecuado para evitar taponamientos que junto con las roturas del tubo, son las principales fallas de este tipo de drenaje.

Cualquier tipo de drenaje subterráneo, debe permitir una salida fácil del agua con pendiente adecuada no menor del medio por ciento.

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101 comentarios:

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  3. esta excelente la pagina,con todo lo que es necesario saber...perome gustaria saber como se construyen los drenajes en una carretera.
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  4. cuanto se debe de asumir para el tirante normal de una alcantarilla de carretras para caminos rurales,cabe senalar que estoy disenando a tubo semillenop

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  5. por favor el que sepa que me dija lo del tirante lo necesito para hoy

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  9. Mi sugerencia, es que se deberían completar los valores de n para la formula de Manning, por ejemplo para el hormigón que es muy usado. Bueno saludos, Bendiciones.

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